the first african in space
the crew
prev prev
b) Specificity

Muscles adapt specifically to the nature of the stimulation. Specific exercise elicits specific adaptations, thereby creating specific training effects. As a result, the closer the training routine is to the requirements of competition or to the individual’s fitness goals, the better the performance outcome.

The principle of specificity becomes important not only where skill acquisition is essential, but also with regard to the intensity that the individual trains at.

It seems that endurance type of exercise is more general in terms of improving cardiovascular function, although the peripheral effects, i.e. muscle strengthening, are confined to the muscles predominantly used during that exercise.

c) Individuality

The exact physiological response of one individual to a training programme may vary considerably from that of another individual undergoing the same training programme. There are a number of factors that influence individual performance, most of which are genetic.

As a result, training benefits are optimized when exercise programmes are specifically designed to meet the individual needs of the individual. Accordingly, the programme should be modified and adjusted based on individual progression.

e) Reversibility

Regular training produces a variety of beneficial physiological adaptations, which unfortunately are transient and not permanent. Reductions in training, or periods of sustained rest decrease the positive response to exercise, and lead to a decrement in performance. Variations in the activity levels of different individuals make it difficult to quantify the actual rate of decline. It is however possible that the higher the initial fitness level achieved, the longer the fitness benefits may persist.

prev prev

Landing Countdown to 05:51 05 May

Landing Complete!

The Team
Mark Shuttleworth
Dale Cupido
Karen Sharwood
Lara Keytel
Danie Barry
Freddy Khan
Vaughan Oosthuizen
Ravi Naidoo
Vuyo Dwane
Richard Mills
Nicolette Cronje
Wayne Derman
Peter Ribton
Mark's Measurements
Mark's Heart Rate
Mark's 24 Hr Heart Rate
Mark's Energy Intake
Body Weight
Blood Pressure
Mid Thigh Girth
About Health Measurements
Body Composition
Blood Pressure
About Heart Rate
Heart Rate
Research Outline
Research Prediction
Gallery Highlights

Church of Jesus Christ

Zero-G Heart Rate Data

Next-generation Soyuz TMA Cockpit

Mig-25 Afterburners